In endurance sports such as cycling and running, hitting the wall or the bonk is a condition of sudden fatigue and loss of energy which is caused by the depletion of glycogen stores in the liver and muscles.


A simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6, which means that it is a molecule that is made of six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. Glucose circulates as blood sugar.


The levels of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism.


A metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids as well as high levels of circulating glucose and the lack of insulin.


The biochemical process by which organisms produce a group of substances called ketone bodies by the breakdown of fatty acids and ketogenic amino acids.


An organic compound with the structure RC(=O)R’, where R and R’ can be a variety of carbon-containing substituents. It is a byproduct of fatty acid metabolism. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and β-hydroxybutyrate.

Leaky Gut Syndrome

While mainstream science recognizes the phenomenon of increased intestinal permeability (“leaky gut”), claims for the existence of “leaky gut syndrome” as a distinct medical condition come mostly from nutritionists and from practitioners of alternative medicine.


Macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water) are used primarily to generate energy or to incorporate into tissues for growth and repair.

Metabolic Syndrome

A clustering of at least 3 of the 5 following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides, and/or low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.


Nutrients required by organisms throughout life in small quantities to orchestrate a range of physiological functions. The microminerals or trace elements for humans are at least iron, cobalt, chromium, copper, iodine, manganese, selenium, zinc, and molybdenum.


A double membrane-bound organelle found in almost all human cells whose function is to produce the energy currency of the cell, ATP (i.e., phosphorylation of ADP), through respiration, and to regulate cellular metabolism

Monounsaturated Fat

Fatty acids that have one double bond in the fatty acid chain with all of the remaining carbon atoms being single-bonded. They can be found in avocados, peanut butter, and sesame oil, and can have a beneficial effect on your health when replacing saturated fat and trans fat in your diet.

Nutritional Ketosis

A metabolic state in which some of the body’s energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy. Ketosis is a result of metabolizing fat to provide energy, characterized by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose.

Polyunsaturated Fat

Lipids in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon-carbon double bonds. They can be found mostly in vegetable oils such as canola, sunflower oil, nuts, seeds, packaged foods, and oysters. When replacing saturated fat and trans fat in your diet with these fats, they can have a beneficial effect on your health.

Saturated Fat

A type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds. Examples of foods containing a high proportion of saturated fat include animal fat products such as cheese, cream, butter, other whole milk dairy products and fatty meats.


Formed by combining glycerol with three fatty acid molecules, Triglycerides are a type of fat in your blood which is stored and used as energy throughout the day. Higher levels can indicate an increased risk of stroke or heart disease. Also commonly referred to as lipids.